The changing climate

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changing climate

We are at a defining moment in history regarding changing climate The effects of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. They range from shifting weather patterns that threaten food production to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding. Adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and expensive without drastic action today changing climate.

Greenhouse gas fingerprints of humans-changing climate

By preventing some of the sun’s warmth from reflecting into space, greenhouse gases are essential for humans and millions of other living things. In the last century and a half, industrialization, deforestation, and large-scale agriculture have resulted in record levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Increasing populations, economies, and living standards increase greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs).

Several well-established scientific links exist:

  • Earth’s average global temperature is directly related to the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere.
  • Since the Industrial Revolution, concentrations and mean temperatures have been rising steadily;
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2), which accounts for two-thirds of GHGs, is largely a product of fossil fuel combustion.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide objective scientific information.

Sixth Assessment Report-changing climate

In its Sixth Assessment Report, released in March 2023, the IPCC surveys the state of knowledge about climate change. It emphasizes the findings since its Fifth Assessment Report in 2014. It is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the IPCC – on the physical science; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and mitigation – as well as the three Special Reports on Global Warming of 1.5°changing climate and Land, and Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate.

  • The atmosphere, oceans, and land have all been warmed by human activity. There have been widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, and biosphere.
  • Over many centuries to many thousands of years, the scale of recent changes across the entire climate system – and the current state of many aspects of the climate system – has never been seen before.
  • Every region globally is already experiencing weather and climate extremes caused by human-induced climate change. Heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and tropical cyclones and their attribution to human influence have changed since the Fifth Assessment Report.
  • There are approximately 3.3 to 3.6 billion people who live in climate-vulnerable regions.
  • There is a substantial difference in the vulnerability of ecosystems and people to changing climate between and within regions.
  • Many human and natural systems will face additional severe risks if global warming transiently exceeds 1.5°C in the coming decades or later.
  • To reduce global warming emissions across the entire energy sector, we must reduce our use of fossil fuels, deploy low-emission energy sources, switch to alternative energy carriers, and maximize energy efficiency.

1.5°C of global warming

In October 2018, the IPCC released a special report concluding that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, far-reaching, and unprecedented societal changes. In addition to ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, limiting global warming to 1.5°C over two °C would benefit people and natural ecosystems. As previously estimated, changing climate is expected to have many adverse effects when temperatures rise by 1.5°C rather than two °C.

Climate change impacts could also be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5oC rather than 2oC. For example, sea level rise, for example, would be 10 cm lower with 1.5°C warming than with two °C warming by 2100. With 1.5°C global warmings, the Arctic Ocean would be free of sea ice once every century, but only once every decade with 2°C. With global warming of 1.5°C, coral reefs would decline by 70-90 per cent, while with a warming of 2°C, virtually all coral reefs would be destroyed.

To limit global warming to 1.5°C, “rapid and far-reaching” changes are needed in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. By 2030, human-caused carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions would need to fall by 45 per cent from 2010 levels, reaching ‘net zero’ by 2050. As a result, any remaining emissions would have to be offset by removing CO2.

Legal instruments of the UN-changing climate

 changing climate Framework Convention.

The UN family is leading efforts to save our planet. During its 1992 “Earth Summit,” the UNFCCC was created to address the climate change issue. In today’s world, it is almost universally represented. Parties to the Convention are the 197 countries that have ratified it. Its ultimate goal is to prevent “dangerous” human interference with the changing climate system.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted two years after countries began negotiating to strengthen the global response to changing climate. As a result of the Kyoto Protocol, developed country Parties are legally obligated to reduce their emissions. The first commitment period under the Protocol ended in 2012. A second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and ended in 2020. The Kyoto Protocol now has 192 Parties, and the Convention has 198

Peace Nobel Award-changing climate

In 2007, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to former United States Vice-President Al Gore and the IPCC “for their efforts to build up and disseminate detailed knowledge about man-made climate change, and for laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract such change.”

We are at a defining moment in history regarding climate change. The effects of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. They range from shifting weather patterns that threaten food production to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding. Adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and expensive without drastic action today.

Greenhouse gas fingerprints of humans

By preventing some of the sun’s warmth from reflecting into space, greenhouse gases are essential for humans and millions of other living things. In the last century and a half, industrialization, deforestation, and large-scale agriculture have resulted in record levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Increasing populations, economies, and living standards increase greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs).

Several well-established scientific links exist:

  • Earth’s average global temperature is directly related to the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere.
  • Since the Industrial Revolution, concentrations and mean temperatures have been rising steadily;
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2), which accounts for two-thirds of GHGs, is largely a product of fossil fuel combustion.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide objective scientific information.

Sixth Assessment Report

In its Sixth Assessment Report, released in March 2023, the IPCC surveys the state of knowledge about climate change. It emphasizes the findings since its Fifth Assessment Report in 2014. It is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the IPCC – on the physical science; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and mitigation – as well as the three Special Reports on Global Warming of 1.5°C, Climate Change and Land, and Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate.

  • The atmosphere, oceans, and land have all been warmed by human activity. There have been widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, and biosphere.
  • Over many centuries to many thousands of years, the scale of recent changes across the entire climate system – and the current state of many aspects of the climate system – has never been seen before.
  • Every region globally is already experiencing weather and climate extremes caused by human-induced climate change. Heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and tropical cyclones and their attribution to human influence have changed since the Fifth Assessment Report.
  • There are approximately 3.3 to 3.6 billion people who live in climate-vulnerable regions.
  • There is a substantial difference in the vulnerability of ecosystems and people to climate change between and within regions.
  • Many human and natural systems will face additional severe risks if global warming transiently exceeds 1.5°C in the coming decades or later.
  • To reduce global warming emissions across the entire energy sector, we must reduce our use of fossil fuels, deploy low-emission energy sources, switch to alternative energy carriers, and maximize energy efficiency.

1.5°C of global warming

In October 2018, the IPCC released a special report concluding that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, far-reaching, and unprecedented societal changes. In addition to ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, limiting global warming to 1.5°C over two °C would benefit people and natural ecosystems. As previously estimated, climate change is expected to have many adverse effects when temperatures rise by 1.5°C rather than two °C.

Climate change impacts could also be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5oC rather than 2oC. For example, sea level rise, for example, would be 10 cm lower with 1.5°C warming than with two °C warming by 2100. With 1.5°C global warmings, the Arctic Ocean would be free of sea ice once every century, but only once every decade with 2°C. With global warming of 1.5°C, coral reefs would decline by 70-90 per cent, while with a warming of 2°C, virtually all coral reefs would be destroyed.

To limit global warming to 1.5°C, “rapid and far-reaching” changes are needed in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. By 2030, human-caused carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions would need to fall by 45 per cent from 2010 levels, reaching ‘net zero’ by 2050. As a result, any remaining emissions would have to be offset by removing CO2.

Legal instruments of the UN

 Climate Change Framework Convention.

The UN family is leading efforts to save our planet. During its 1992 “Earth Summit,” the UNFCCC was created to address the climate change issue. In today’s world, it is almost universally represented. Parties to the Convention are the 197 countries that have ratified it. Its ultimate goal is to prevent “dangerous” human interference with the climate system.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted two years after countries began negotiating to strengthen the global response to climate change. As a result of the Kyoto Protocol, developed country Parties are legally obligated to reduce their emissions. The first commitment period under the Protocol ended in 2012. A second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and ended in 2020. The Kyoto Protocol now has 192 Parties, and the Convention has 198

Peace Nobel Award

In 2007, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to former United States Vice-President Al Gore and the IPCC “for their efforts to build up and disseminate detailed knowledge about man-made climate change, and for laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract such change.”

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